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《中欧全面投资协定》核心内容(附中英双语版)

《中欧全面投资协定》核心内容(附中英双语版)

来源:欧盟委员会公开网站及中国发展观察

背景简要分析:

从技术层面看,中欧CAI达成后将取代中国与27个欧盟成员国中的26个国家(除爱尔兰以外的所有国家)之间订立的双边投资保护协定(Bilateral Investment Treaty, BIT)。但是,中欧CAI谈判的目标并不限于此,从这一谈判被命名为中欧CAI而非中欧BIT已经显示出双方旨在改变以往“简式”BIT的传统,即仅包括投资保护内容,而寻求达成包括投资自由化目标在内的更富有雄心的综合性双边投资保护协定。投资自由化目标在中欧CAI 谈判中主要体现为与市场准入相关的条款安排,因此,与市场准入相关条款内容的谈判将决定着中欧CAI能否在年内按期完成。有鉴于此,下文拟在分析中欧双方在市场准入方面的主要诉求的基础上,探讨中欧双方磋商的难点并提出政策建议。

欧盟对华投资在市场准入方面的主要障碍

在市场准入方面,欧盟主要寻求在金融业、电信、信息通信技术、制造业、工程和生物技术等关键领域更好的市场准入和公平竞争环境。在推进中欧CAI谈判过程中,欧盟委员会分别于2015年和2018年发布了其委托独立咨询公司对中欧CAI可持续性影响进行评估的报告。2018年发布的评估报告基于以下三个不同标准选出六个产业部门进行分析:一是欧盟对外投资规模;二是未来一段时间内中国可能会吸引欧盟投资的产业部门;三是劳动强度及其对劳动力的影响。六个产业部门是运输设备、采矿和能源开采、化工、食品和饮料制造、金融和保险以及通信和电子设备。经研究认为,在运输设备方面,欧盟运输设备公司在中国投资时面临的主要市场准入障碍是合资要求;在采矿和能源开采方面,欧盟企业在中国面临的问题是一些子行业对外国投资开放,而其他子行业则完全封闭;在化工行业方面, 欧盟投资者在中国面临的主要障碍是跨国公司受与国内公司不同的规则约束。在食品和饮料制造行业, 欧盟公司面临的问题是需要中国合伙人持有多数股份,申请多个许可证书;在金融保险方面,市场准入问题包括所有权限制、股本上限和分支机构网络扩张限制;在通讯与电子设备方面,报告认为政府鼓励通信和电子设备行业的外国企业来华投资,但另一方面,对广泛的外国ICT产品和服务也有严格的限制, 目的是实现国产替代,这导致了巨大的市场准入壁垒。

该报告认为,中国如减少对上述这六个关键行业外国产品和服务的限制和投资壁垒,所有这些行业均将从中欧CAI中受益,而欧盟在这些行业产出的增加则会导致欧盟低技能和高技能就业人数的增加, 并且一些产业部门的开放,还会使欧盟之外的国家也受益,例如汽车业。此外,欧盟和中国的中小企业也将从中欧CAI中受益,因为它们通常会因投资相关障碍而面临不成比例的成本,欧盟和中国的本地中小企业都有望获得积极的市场准入和生产率溢出效应。

中文版协定核心内容:

在过去的20年中,从欧盟流入中国的欧盟累计外国直接投资(FDI)已超过1400亿欧元。对于中国对欧盟的直接投资,这一数字接近1200亿欧元。就中国经济的规模和潜力而言,欧盟在中国的外国直接投资仍然相对较少。

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在投资方面,中欧全面投资协定(CAI)将是中国与第三国缔结的最雄心勃勃的协定。除了禁止强制转让技术的规则外,CAI还将成为首个履行对国有企业行为的义务,对补贴的全面透明规则以及与可持续发展有关的承诺的协议。

CAI将确保欧盟投资者更好地进入快速增长的14亿消费市场,并确保他们在中国的公平竞争环境中竞争。这对于全球竞争力和欧盟工业的未来发展非常重要。

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中国雄心向欧洲投资开放

首先,CAI约束了中国过去20年的投资自由化,从而防止了回落。这使欧盟公司的市场准入条件变得清晰且独立于中国的内部政策。它还允许欧盟在违反承诺的情况下在CAI中诉诸争端解决机制。

此外,欧盟还就更多领域的新的市场准入开放和承诺进行了谈判,例如取消了数量限制,股本上限或合资企业要求。这些限制严重阻碍了我们公司在中国的业务。总体方案比中国以前承诺的要远大得多。

在欧盟方面,根据《服务贸易总协定》(GATS),服务市场已经开放并为服务行业做出了很大的承诺。欧盟在能源,农业,渔业,视听,公共服务等方面的敏感性都保留在CAI中。

中国的市场准入承诺示例:

  • 制造业:中国做出的全面承诺只有很少的排除在外(特别是在产能严重过剩的行业中)。就雄心壮志而言,这将与欧盟的开放度相匹配。欧盟外国直接投资的大约一半用于制造业(例如运输和电信设备,化学药品,医疗设备等)。中国没有与任何其他合作伙伴做出如此深远的市场准入承诺。
  • 汽车行业:中国已同意取消和淘汰合资企业规定。中国将致力于新能源汽车的市场准入。
  • 金融服务:中国已经开始逐步开放金融服务业,并将承诺并承诺继续向欧盟投资者开放。银行,证券和保险交易(包括再保险)以及资产管理的合资企业要求和外国股权上限已被删除。
  • 卫生(私立医院):中国将通过解除对北京,上海,天健,广州和深圳等中国主要城市的私立医院的合资要求来提供新的市场开放。
  • 研发(生物资源):中国以前从未承诺开放外国对生物资源研发的投资。中国已同意不采取新的限制措施,并给予欧盟任何可能在未来取消的当前限制。
  • 电信/云服务:中国已同意取消对云服务的投资禁令。现在,它们将向欧盟投资者开放,但其股本上限为50%。
  • 计算机服务:中国已同意对计算机服务的市场准入进行约束,这比当前情况有了很大的改善。另外,中国将包括“技术中立”条款,该条款将确保对增值电信服务施加的股本上限不会应用于在线提供的其他服务,例如金融,物流,医疗等。
  • 国际海上运输:中国将允许对相关的陆上辅助活动进行投资,使欧盟公司可以不受限制地投资于货物装卸,集装箱堆场和车站,海事机构等。这将允许欧盟公司组织全方位的多式联运的门到门运输,包括国际海运的国内航线。
  • 与航空运输相关的服务:尽管CAI由于受制于单独的航空协议而未涉及交通权,但中国将在计算机预订系统,地面处理以及销售和营销服务等关键领域开放。中国还取消了对没有机组人员的飞机出租和租赁的最低资本要求,这超出了《服务贸易总协定》的范围。
  • 商业服务:中国将取消对房地产服务,租赁和租赁服务,运输的维修和保养,广告,市场研究,管理咨询和翻译服务等领域的合资要求。
  • 环保服务:中国将取消对环境服务的合资要求,例如污水,减噪,固体废物处置,废气清洁,自然和景观保护,环境卫生和其他环境服务。  
  • 建设服务:中国将消除其GATS承诺中目前保留的项目限制。
  • 欧盟投资者的雇员:欧盟公司的经理和专家将被允许在中国子公司工作长达三年,而不受劳动力市场测试或配额等限制。允许欧盟投资者的代表在投资之前自由访问。
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改善公平竞争环境–使投资更公平

  • 国有企业(SOE) -中国国有企业贡献了该国GDP的30%左右。CAI试图通过要求国有企业根据商业考虑采取行动,而不是对其商品或服务的购买和销售进行歧视,从而对国有企业的行为进行纪律处分。重要的是,中国还承担根据要求提供特定信息的义务,以便评估特定企业的行为是否符合商定的CAI义务。如果问题仍未解决,我们可以诉诸CAI解决争端。
  • 补贴的透明度– CAI通过对服务部门的补贴施加透明度义务来填补WTO规则中的一个重要空白。此外,CAI要求中国进行磋商,以便提供有关补贴的更多信息,这些补贴可能对欧盟的投资利益产生负面影响。中国也有义务进行磋商,以寻求消除这种负面影响。
  • 强制技术转让– CAI针对禁止技术转让制定了非常明确的规则。这些规定包括禁止几种迫使技术转让的投资要求,例如将技术转让给合资伙伴的要求,以及禁止在技术许可中干扰合同自由的要求。这些规则还将包括保护行政机构(例如,在商品或服务的认证过程中)收集的机密商业信息免遭未经授权的披露的纪律。商定的规则大大加强了WTO的纪律。
  • 标准制定,授权,透明度–该协议涵盖了欧盟其他长期存在的要求。中国将为我们的公司提供平等使用标准制定机构的机会。中国还将提高授权的透明度,可预测性和公平性。CAI将包括监管和行政措施的透明度规则,以提高法律的确定性和可预测性,以及程序公平性和司法复审权(包括在竞争案件中)。

将可持续发展纳入我们的投资关系

  • 与中国缔结的其他协议相反,CAI将双方约束为建立在可持续发展原则基础上的基于价值的投资关系。有关规定受制于专门量身定制的执行机制,以高度透明和民间社会参与的方式解决分歧。
  • 中国承诺在劳工和环境领域不降低保护标准以吸引投资,不为保护主义目的使用劳工和环境标准,并遵守有关条约中的国际义务。中国将支持公司履行企业社会责任。
  • 重要的是,CAI还包括对环境和气候的承诺,包括有效执行《巴黎气候协定》。
  • 中国还致力于争取批准尚未批准的国际劳工组织(国际劳工组织)基本公约,并对尚未批准的两项国际劳工组织关于强迫劳动的基本公约作出具体承诺。

监督执行和争端解决

  • 在CAI中,中国同意与我们的贸易协议一样的执行机制(州与州之间的争端解决)。
  • 这将与在政治一级建立的诉讼前阶段的监督机制相结合,这将使我们能够在问题出现时提出问题(包括通过紧急程序进行)。
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英文版协定内容:

The cumulative EU foreign direct investment (FDI) flows from the EU to China over the last 20 years have reached more than €140 billion. For Chinese FDI into the EU the figure is almost €120 billion. EU FDI in China remains relatively modest with respect to the size and the potential of the Chinese economy.

As regards investment, the EU-China Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI) will be the most ambitious agreement that China has ever concluded with a third country. In addition to rules against the forced transfer of technologies, CAI will also be the first agreement to deliver on obligations for the behavior of state-owned enterprises, comprehensive transparency rules for subsidies and commitments related to sustainable development.

The CAI will ensure that EU investors achieve better access to a fast growing 1.4 billion consumer market, and that they compete on a better level playing field in China. This is important for the global competitiveness and the future growth of EU industry.

Ambitious opening by China to European investments

Firstly, the CAI binds China’s liberalisation of investments over the last 20 years and, in that way, it prevents backsliding. This makes the conditions of market access for EU companies clear and independent of China’s internal policies. It also allows the EU to resort to the dispute resolution mechanism in CAI in case of breach of commitments.

In addition, the EU has negotiated further and new market access openings and commitments such as the elimination of quantitative restrictions, equity caps or joint venture requirements in a number of sectors. These are restrictions that severely hamper the activities of our companies in China. The overall package is far more ambitious than what China has committed to before.

On the EU side, the market is already open and largely committed for services sectors under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). EU sensitivities, such as in the field of energy, agriculture, fisheries, audio-visual, public services, etc. are all preserved in CAI.

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Examples of market access commitments by China:

  • Manufacturing: China has made comprehensive commitments with only very limited exclusions (in particular, in sectors with significant overcapacity). In terms of the level of ambition, this would match the EU’s openness. Roughly half of EU FDI is in the manufacturing sector (e.g. transport and telecommunication equipment, chemicals, health equipment etc.). China has not made such far-reaching market access commitments with any other partner.
  • Automotive sector: China has agreed to remove and phase out joint venture requirements. China will commit market access for new energy vehicles.
  • Financial services: China had already started the process of gradually liberalising the financial services sector and will grant and commit to keep that opening to EU investors. Joint venture requirements and foreign equity caps have been removed for banking, trading in securities and insurance (including reinsurance), as well as asset management.
  • Health (private hospitals): China will offer new market opening by lifting joint venture requirements for private hospitals in key Chinese cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjian, Guangzhou and Shenzhen .
  • R&D (biological resources): China has not previously committed openness to foreign investment in R&D in biological resources. China has agreed not to introduce new restrictions and to give to the EU any lifting of current restrictions in this area that may happen in the future.
  • Telecommunication/Cloud services: China has agreed to lift the investment ban for cloud services. They will now be open to EU investors subject to a 50% equity cap.
  • Computer services: China has agreed to bind market access for computer services – a significant improvement from the current situation. Also, China will include a ‘technology neutrality’ clause, which would ensure that equity caps imposed for value-added telecom services will not be applied to other services such as financial, logistics, medical etc. if offered online.
  • International maritime transport: China will allow investment in the relevant land-based auxiliary activities, enabling EU companies to invest without restriction in cargo-handling, container depots and stations, maritime agencies, etc. This will allow EU companies to organise a full range of multi-modal door-to-door transport, including the domestic leg of international maritime transport.
  • Air transport-related services: While the CAI does not address traffic rights because they are subject to separate aviation agreements, China will open up in the key areas of computer reservation systems, ground handling and selling and marketing services. China has also removed its minimum capital requirement for rental and leasing of aircraft without crew, going beyond GATS.
  • Business services: China will eliminate joint venture requirements in real estate services, rental and leasing services, repair and maintenance for transport, advertising, market research, management consulting and translation services, etc.
  • Environmental services: China will remove joint venture requirements in environmental services such as sewage, noise abatement, solid waste disposal, cleaning of exhaust gases, nature and landscape protection, sanitations and other environmental services.  
  • Construction services: China will eliminate the project limitations currently reserved in their GATS commitments.
  • Employees of EU investors: Managers and specialists of EU companies will be allowed to work up to three years in Chinese subsidiaries, without restrictions such as labour market tests or quotas. Representatives of EU investors will be allowed to visit freely prior to making an investment.

Improving level playing field – making investment fairer

  • State owned enterprises (SOEs) – Chinese SOEs contribute to around 30 percent of the country’s GDP. CAI seeks to discipline the behaviour of SOEs by requiring them to act in accordance with commercial considerations and not to discriminate in their purchases and sales of goods or services. Importantly, China also undertakes the obligation to provide, upon request, specific information to allow for the assessment of whether the behaviour of a specific enterprise complies with the agreed the CAI obligations. If the problem goes unresolved, we can resort to dispute resolution under the CAI.
  • Transparency in subsidies – The CAI fills one important gap in the WTO rulebook by imposing transparency obligations on subsidies in the services sectors. Also, the CAI obliges China to engage in consultations in order to provide additional information on subsidies that could have a negative effect on the investment interests of the EU. China is also obliged to engage in consultations with a view to seek to address such negative effects.
  • Forced technology transfers – The CAI lays very clear rules against the forced transfer of technology. The provisions consist of the prohibition of several types of investment requirements that compel transfer of technology, such as requirements to transfer technology to a joint venture partner, as well as prohibitions to interfere in contractual freedom in technology licencing. These rules would also include disciplines on the protection of confidential business information collected by administrative bodies (for instance in the process of certification of a good or a service) from unauthorised disclosure. The agreed rules significantly enhance the disciplines in WTO.
  • Standard setting, authorisations, transparency – This agreement covers other long-standing EU industry requests. China will provide equal access to standard setting bodies for our companies. China will also enhance transparency, predictability and fairness in authorisations. The CAI will include transparency rules for regulatory and administrative measures to enhance legal certainty and predictability, as well as for procedural fairness and the right to judicial review, including in competition cases.

Embedding sustainable development in our investment relationship

  • In contrast to other agreements concluded by China, the CAI binds the parties into a value-based investment relationship grounded on sustainable development principles. The relevant provisions are subject to a specifically tailored implementation mechanism to address differences with a high degree of transparency and participation of civil society.
  • China commits, in the areas of labour and environment, not to lower the standards of protection in order to attract investment, not to use labour and environment standards for protectionist purposes, as well as to respect its international obligations in the relevant treaties. China will support the uptake of corporate social responsibility by its companies.
  • Importantly, the CAI also includes commitments on environment and climate, including to effectively implement the Paris Agreement on climate.
  • China also commits to working towards the ratification of the outstanding ILO (International Labour Organisation) fundamental Conventions and takes specific commitments in relation to the two ILO fundamental Conventions on forced labour that it has not ratified yet.

Monitoring of implementation and dispute settlement

  • In the CAI, China agrees to an enforcement mechanism (state-to-state dispute settlement), as in our trade agreements.
  • This will be coupled with a monitoring mechanism at pre-litigation phase established at political level, which will allow us to raise problems as they arise (including via an urgency procedure).

注:本文中文翻译自欧盟委员会公开网站及中国发展观察,英文为原文字

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Harvey Yan

1 comment so far

啧啧啧Posted on11:02 下午 - 5月 9, 2021

好像只有中国对欧洲的承诺,没有欧洲对中国的承诺啊?

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